Currently, a diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease creates eligibility for presumptive service connection. government. Herbicide Tests and Storage Outside Vietnam", "Agent Orange Residue on Post-Vietnam War Airplanes", "The defoliant Agent Orange, which contains dioxin, was sprayed...", "Agent Orange's Other Legacy—a $12 Billion Cleanup and a Fight Over Who Pays", "Report on DoD Herbicides Outside of Vietnam", "Monsanto Settles West Virginia Lawsuits Over Nitro Plant", "Supreme Court affirms Monsanto pollution settlement in Nitro", "Vietnam, US launch Danang dioxin clean-up", "U.S. starts its first Agent Orange cleanup in Vietnam", "Agent Orange clean at Navy Seabee base is the focus at public meeting", Public Health Assessment, Naval Construction Battalion Center Gulfport, Mississippi, Facility No. [98], In 2002, Vietnam and the U.S. held a joint conference on Human Health and Environmental Impacts of Agent Orange. Contact Advance411 Facebook: Official Site of Advance411 Advance411: Advance411 Links Wallpaper Gang, Esq. "[145] The 2013 report states: "The authors of the [2003] report were not DoD employees, nor were they likely familiar with the issues surrounding Herbicide Orange or its actual history of transport to the Island." Available to domestic students only, adjustment factors can add extra momentum to your application, boosting your rank to get you into your desired course with flying colours. Beginning in January 1962, U.S. helicopters, boats, trucks and C-123 transport planes sprayed nearly 18% of South Vietnam’s forests, plus parts of Cambodia and Laos, with various herbicides, with peak sprays between 1967 and 1969. [45], A person with birth deformities associated with prenatal exposure to Agent Orange. This exception voids any protection of any military and civilian personnel from a napalm attack or something like Agent Orange and is clear that it was designed to cover situations like U.S. tactics in Vietnam. Yet they still keep smiling, singing in their great innocence, at the presence of some visitors, craving for something beautiful. [85] The firm also located and supplied critical research to the veterans' lead expert, Dr. Codario, including about 100 articles from toxicology journals dating back more than a decade, as well as data about where herbicides had been sprayed, what the effects of dioxin had been on animals and humans, and every accident in factories where herbicides were produced or dioxin was a contaminant of some chemical reaction. On March 2, 2009, the Supreme Court denied certiorari and declined to reconsider the ruling of the Court of Appeals. In 1943, the U.S. Department of the Army hired Arthur Galston, a graduate student in the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana’s botany department to study the effects of Agent Orange chemicals on grain crops. The committee has been meeting yearly to explore areas of scientific cooperation, technical assistance and environmental remediation of dioxin. For the past 40 years the percentage of veterans receiving benefits has held at a consistent 8.5%. [124] On July 12, 2005, Merchant Law Group, on behalf of over 1,100 Canadian veterans and civilians who were living in and around CFB Gagetown, filed a lawsuit to pursue class action litigation concerning Agent Orange and Agent Purple with the Federal Court of Canada. Contact Advance411 Facebook: Official Site of Advance411 Advance411: Advance411 Links Wallpaper veterans stationed at the Navy’s Camp Garcia bioweapons site in Vieques, Puerto Rico during the 1970’s may also have been exposed to Agent Orange. In the Village, it is quite hard to tell the kids' exact ages. His work has been mentioned in media outlets across the country. Agent Orange is a herbicide and defoliant chemical, one of the "tactical use" Rainbow Herbicides. [26][68][69] Because Laos and Cambodia were neutral during the Vietnam War, the U.S. attempted to keep secret its wars, including its bombing campaigns against those countries, from the American population and has largely avoided compensating American veterans and CIA personnel stationed in Cambodia and Laos who suffered permanent injuries as a result of exposure to Agent Orange there. [40], The U.S. military began targeting food crops in October 1962, primarily using Agent Blue; the American public was not made aware of the crop destruction programs until 1965 (and it was then believed that crop spraying had begun that spring). In 1967, Dr. Arthur W. Galston, often referred to as the man who discovered Dioxin in 1943, joined with other scientists to plead with Washington not to use Agent Orange in Vietnam. Britain was the first to use Agent Orange in herbicidal warfare during the Malayan Emergency of the 1950’s. There are cases of New Zealand soldiers developing cancers such as bone cancer, but none has been scientifically connected to exposure to herbicides. The United States considered British precedent in deciding that the use of defoliants was a legally accepted tactic of war. [33] By 1971, 12 percent of the total area of South Vietnam had been sprayed with defoliating chemicals, at an average concentration of 13 times the recommended U.S. Department of Agriculture application rate for domestic use. [165], U.S.–Vietnamese government negotiations, Vietnamese victims class action lawsuit in U.S. courts, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 31/72, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Effects of Agent Orange on the Vietnamese people, University of Texas Health Science Center, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, U.S. Troop Readiness, Veterans' Care, Katrina Recovery, and Iraq Accountability Appropriations Act, 2007, United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York, the U.S.-Vietnam Dialogue Group on Agent Orange/Dioxin, New Zealand in the Vietnam War § Agent Orange, United States Army Chemical Materials Agency, "Agent Orange Linked To Skin Cancer Risk", "U.S. in first effort to clean up Agent Orange in Vietnam", "The Effects of Dioxin on Reproduction and Development", "Facts About Herbicides – Public Health", "In Memoriam: Arthur Galston, Plant Biologist, Fought Use of Agent Orange", "Agent Orange: A deadly member of the rainbow", "Agent Orange's Long Legacy, for Vietnam and Veterans", Vietnam War: French court to hear landmark Agent Orange case, "4 Decades on, U.S. Starts Cleanup of Agent Orange in Vietnam", "United States of America: Practice Relating to Rule 76. Herbicides", "Professor Nguyen Viet Nhan: Helping Child Victims of Agent Orange Defoliation", "Ủng hộ nạn nhân chất độc da cam/Đi-ô-xin", Evaluation of Contamination at the Agent Orange Dioxin Hot Spots in Bien Hoa, Phu Cat and Vicinity, Vietnam, Assessment of dioxin contamination in the environment and human population in the vicinity of Da Nang Airbase, Viet Nam, "Killing Me Softly: How Agent Orange Murders Vietnam's Children", Veterans Exposed to Agent Orange: Legislative History, Litigation, and Current Issues, "Most Americans favor compensation for Agent Orange victims", Post-Vietnam Dioxin Exposure in Agent Orange-Contaminated C-123 Aircraft, "Vietnam Era Health Retrospective Observational Study", "Agent Orange: Diseases Associated with Agent Orange Exposure", "Agent Orange exposure, Vietnam War veterans, and the risk of prostate cancer", "Agent Orange as a risk factor for high-grade prostate cancer", "A critical review of the epidemiology of Agent Orange/TCDD and prostate cancer", "The U.S.'s Toxic Agent Orange Legacy: Washington Has Admitted to the Long-Lasting Effects of Dioxin Use in Vietnam, But Has Largely Sidestepped the Issue in Neighboring Cambodia and Laos", 'Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims,', "Convention on the Prohibition of the Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques", "Practice Relating to Rule 76. Spray mixtures held over 13 times the concentration of defoliant recommended by the UDSA for domestic use. With this evidence, veterans with Parkinson’s-like symptoms should be able to collect VA benefits associated with Agent Orange exposure. [105] A $43 million project began in the summer of 2012, as Vietnam and the U.S. forge closer ties to boost trade and counter China's rising influence in the disputed South China Sea. In June 2015, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs issued an Interim final rule providing presumptive service connection for post-Vietnam C-123 aircrews, maintenance staff and aeromedical evacuation crews. Unfortunately in high concentrations it would defoliate them and it was made into a herbicide even though Galston had grave concerns about its effects on humans. In 1991, after scientific evidence showing that symptoms of Agent Orange toxicity can take decades to appear, Congress enacted the Agent Orange Act. [47] The most affected zones are the mountainous area along Truong Son (Long Mountains) and the border between Vietnam and Cambodia. U.S. Army armored personnel carrier (APC) spraying Agent Orange over Vietnamese rice fields during the Vietnam War. ", "Agent Orange: Information for Veterans Who Served in Vietnam", "Investigations into Allegations of Herbicide Orange on Okinawa, Japan", "Final report of the Federal Task Force for Hazardous Materials Management of the Western Federal Regional Council Region IX, August 1, 1973 to June 30, 1977", "Entitlement to service connection for diabetes mellitus, claimed as due to herbicide exposure or ionizing radiation", "As evidence of agent orange in Okinawa stacks up US sticks with blanket denial", An Ecological Assessment of Johnston Atoll, "Agent Orange Found Under Resort Airport", "Thailand: Toxic Legacy of the Vietnam War", "Thailand Military Bases and Agent Orange Exposure – Public Health", United States Department of Veterans Affairs, "University vulnerable to pitfalls of secret experiments", "Public Health. Service Connection for the Cause of Death, Exposure to Agent Orange and Other Herbicides, Gulf War Veterans with Chronic Disabilities, Heart Disabilities and Other Cardiovascular Conditions, Serious Neurological Disorders and Organic Brain Syndrome, Service Disabled Veteran Owned Small Businesses Fraud, Stationed at bases that stored Agent Orange, Stationed at bases that tested or prepared Agent Orange, Serving as flight crew of C-123 transport planes, Serving as aircraft mechanics for C-123 transport planes, Working on helicopters, trucks or boats that sprayed Agent Orange, Working as medical evacuation crews on C-123 transport planes, Non-Vietnam veterans working on C-123 aircraft in the U.S. between 1972 – 1982, Non-Vietnam veterans stationed at the Navy’s Camp Garcia in Vieques, Puerto Rico, Chronic B cell leukemias (including hairy-cell leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia), Chloracne (and skin disorders like chloracne), Peripheral neuropathy (acute and subacute), Soft tissue sarcoma (excluding chondrosarcoma, Kaposi’s sarcoma, mesothelioma and osteosarcoma). May is 13, but she knows nothing, is unable to talk fluently, nor walk with ease due to for her bandy legs. Le procès contre l’« agent orange », cet herbicide qui a empoisonné des millions de personnes durant la guerre du Vietnam, commence lundi 25 janvier. [141] However, these herbicides were expensive, and the Air Force wanted to resell its surplus instead of dumping it at sea. Operation Pacer IVY collected Agent Orange in South Vietnam and removed it in 1972 aboard the ship MV Transpacific for storage on Johnston Atoll. [140] The EPA reports that 6,800,000 L (1,800,000 U.S. gal) of Herbicide Orange was stored at Johnston Island in the Pacific and 1,800,000 L (480,000 U.S. gal) at Gulfport, Mississippi. Contact us today to learn how we can help you win veterans disability benefits. Research with the Huế College of Medicine in Vietnam suggests that children of military personnel who served in Agent Orange affected areas are at higher risk of being born with mental disabilities, cleft palates, hernias and polydactyly, among other health issues. An additional $12 million was appropriated in the fiscal year 2010 in the Supplemental Appropriations Act and a total of $18.5 million appropriated for fiscal year 2011. In some areas, TCDD soil concentrations were 180 million times higher than levels considered safe by the EPA. The addition of hypertension as a disease associated with Agent Orange exposure could mean secondary service connection for kidney failure, stroke and other problems associated with hypertension. [131] In 1999, about 20,000 South Koreans filed two separated lawsuits against U.S. companies, seeking more than $5 billion in damages. Monroe County, Tennessee, is one of the locations known to have been sprayed according to the Tennessee Valley Authority. These included 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, MCPA (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, 1414B and 1414A, recoded LN-8 and LN-32), and isopropyl phenylcarbamate (1313, recoded LN-33). Providing Training For Those Who Represent America’s Veterans and Their Dependents Since 1993. [28][39], In 1965, members of the U.S. Congress were told "crop destruction is understood to be the more important purpose ... but the emphasis is usually given to the jungle defoliation in public mention of the program. Because of this expectation, the VA is planning for an increasing volume of claims. Labor reviewed the claim and accepted it for payment. Precedent has been established by the British during the emergency in Malaya in their use of helicopters for destroying crops by chemical spraying. Not only was there no outcry by other states in response to Britain's use, but the U.S. viewed it as establishing a precedent for the use of herbicides and defoliants in jungle warfare." [103], Secretary of State Hillary Clinton stated during a visit to Hanoi in October 2010 that the U.S. government would begin work on the clean-up of dioxin contamination at the Da Nang Airbase. Teaching them is a hard job. For comparison purposes, an olympic size pool holds approximately 660,000 U.S. gal (2,500 m3). Agent Orange was first used by the British Armed Forces in Malaya during the Malayan Emergency. More progress has been made on the environmental front. Biological weapons (often termed "bio-weapons", "biological threat agents", or "bio-agents") are living organisms or replicating entities ( ⁠i.e. The United Nations ratified United Nations General Assembly Resolution 31/72 and the Environmental Modification Convention. In mid-1961, President Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam asked the United States to conduct aerial herbicide spraying in his country. A UH-1D helicopter from the 336th Aviation Company sprays a defoliation agent over farmland in the Mekong Delta. During 1952–53, the unit supervised the aerial spraying of 2,4,5-T in Kenya to assess the value of defoliants in the eradication of tsetse fly. Richard and Michael (Wieners Out) ... Arthur Fonzarelli. An epidemiological study done by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention showed that there was an increase in the rate of birth defects of the children of military personnel as a result of Agent Orange. In consequence, the urban population in South Vietnam nearly tripled, growing from 2.8 million people in 1958 to 8 million by 1971. is a veterans’ disability attorney who represents disabled veterans nationwide in their appeals for VA disability benefits. The U.S. Department of Defense has denied these allegations with statements by military officials and spokespersons, as well as a January 2013 report authored by Dr. Alvin Young that was released in April 2013. These health conditions include (but are not limited to): Currently, myoproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) like myelofibrosis, essential thrombocytopenia and polycythemia vera are not on the VA’s presumptive list. [135], The use of Agent Orange has been controversial in New Zealand, because of the exposure of New Zealand troops in Vietnam and because of the production of Agent Orange for Vietnam and other users at an Ivon Watkins-Dow chemical plant in Paritutu, New Plymouth. [68][70], One noteworthy exception, according to the U.S. Department of Labor, is a claim filed with the CIA by an employee of "a self-insured contractor to the CIA that was no longer in business." [80] Attorney Hy Mayerson was an early pioneer in Agent Orange litigation, working with environmental attorney Victor Yannacone in 1980 on the first class-action suits against wartime manufacturers of Agent Orange. In 1999, buried drums were uncovered and confirmed to be Agent Orange. [126] Currently, the VA lists the following presumptive diseases and conditions as eligible for compensation and disability benefits due to Agent Orange exposure: Diseases like these may be more aggressive in individuals exposed to Agent Orange than in unexposed patients. [61][62], Military personnel who were involved in storage, mixture and transportation (including aircraft mechanics), and actual use of the chemicals were probably among those who received the heaviest exposures. The CIA advised the Department of Labor that it "had no objections" to paying the claim and Labor accepted the claim for payment:.mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, Civilian Exposure to Agent Orange in Vietnam: GAO-05-371 April 2005.Figure 3: Overview of the Workers' Compensation Claims Process for Contract Employees: " ... Of the 20 claims filed by contract employees [of the united States government], 9 were initially denied by the insurance carriers and 1 was approved for payment. Most of us aren’t medical experts or research scientists and don’t know anyone who is. [74][76], The extensive environmental damage that resulted from usage of the herbicide prompted the United Nations to pass Resolution 31/72 and ratify the Environmental Modification Convention. It was disbanded by Governor Christine Todd Whitman in 1996. [157] The Veteran Administration has also acknowledged that Agent Orange was used domestically by U.S. forces in test sites throughout the United States. The chemicals involved were 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, and endothall (3,6-endoxohexahydrophthalic acid). However, in high concentrations, Agent Orange actually defoliated the soybeans crops and destroyed them. As of 2006, there were 11 such villages, thus granting some social protection to fewer than a thousand victims. Marge Bouvier was born on March 19 in Capital City to Clancy Bouvier, a photographer-turned-steward, and Jacqueline Bouvier.She is the youngest daughter of the Bouvier family. "[110][111], George Jackson stated that "if the Americans were guilty of war crimes for using Agent Orange in Vietnam, then the British would be also guilty of war crimes as well since they were the first nation to deploy the use of herbicides and defoliants in warfare and used them on a large scale throughout the Malayan Emergency. In 1994, testing by the Air Force identified some former spray aircraft as "heavily contaminated" with dioxin residue. [127], On February 17, 2011, the Toronto Star revealed that Agent Orange had been employed to clear extensive plots of Crown land in Northern Ontario. The government of Vietnam says as many as three million people have suffered illness because of Agent Orange,[4] and the Red Cross of Vietnam estimates that up to one million people are disabled or have health problems as a result of Agent Orange contamination. [153][59], In 1978, the EPA suspended spraying of Agent Orange in National Forests. As of 2004, some records of the storage and disposition of Agent Orange at Johnston Atoll have been associated with the historical records of Operation Red Hat. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) backlog of Agent Orange disability cases is currently estimated to be at around 500,000. The Plan of Action was released as an Aspen Institute publication and calls upon the U.S. and Vietnamese governments to join with other governments, foundations, businesses, and nonprofits in a partnership to clean up dioxin "hot spots" in Vietnam and to expand humanitarian services for people with disabilities there. First published in 1994 and titled Veterans and Agent Orange, the IOM reports assess the risk of both cancer and non-cancer health effects. [138], Herbicide persistence studies of Agents Orange and White were conducted in the Philippines. The VA now provides medical care and disability compensation for the recognized list of Agent Orange illnesses. [34] In South Vietnam alone, an estimated 39,000 square miles (10,000,000 ha) of agricultural land was ultimately destroyed. [81], The chemical companies involved denied that there was a link between Agent Orange and the veterans' medical problems. [100], A breakthrough in the diplomatic stalemate on this issue occurred as a result of United States President George W. Bush's state visit to Vietnam in November 2006. [3] The last update was published in 2016, entitled "Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2014.". It was also used by the U.S. military in Laos and Cambodia during the Vietnam War because forests near the border with Vietnam were used by the Viet Cong. As early as 1966, resolutions were introduced to the United Nations charging that the U.S. was violating the 1925 Geneva Protocol, which regulated the use of chemical and biological weapons. [116], Vuong Mo of the Vietnam News Agency described one of the centers:[117]. In the joint statement, President Bush and President Triet agreed "further joint efforts to address the environmental contamination near former dioxin storage sites would make a valuable contribution to the continued development of their bilateral relationship. They later discovered nearly all of the food they had been destroying was not being produced for guerrillas; it was, in reality, only being grown to support the local civilian population. Parkinsonism, not to be confused with Parkinson’s disease, shows symptoms similar to Parkinson’s symptoms – including rigidity, tremors, postural instability and bradykinesia. [122], The U.S. military, with the permission of the Canadian government, tested herbicides, including Agent Orange, in the forests near Canadian Forces Base Gagetown in New Brunswick. Reviewing a brief history of the use of Agent Orange can help determine whether you were at high risk of exposure during service. On March 10, 2005, Judge Jack B. Weinstein of the Eastern District – who had presided over the 1984 U.S. veterans class-action lawsuit – dismissed the lawsuit, ruling there was no legal basis for the plaintiffs' claims. [149] Vietnam-era veterans whose service involved duty on or near the perimeters of military bases in Thailand anytime between February 28, 1961, and May 7, 1975, may have been exposed to herbicides and may qualify for VA benefits. Many Vietnam veterans are now reaching the age where Agent Orange exposure is causing ischemic heart disease, prostate cancer and type II diabetes. [86] Slightly over 45% of the sum was ordered to be paid by Monsanto alone. [94] The authority for the National Academy of Sciences reviews and addition of any new diseases to the presumptive list by the VA is expiring in 2015 under the sunset clause of the Agent Orange Act of 1991. [106], On January 31, 2004, a victim's rights group, the Vietnam Association for Victims of Agent Orange/dioxin (VAVA), filed a lawsuit in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York in Brooklyn, against several U.S. companies for liability in causing personal injury, by developing, and producing the chemical, and claimed that the use of Agent Orange violated the 1907 Hague Convention on Land Warfare, 1925 Geneva Protocol, and the 1949 Geneva Conventions. As of 2017, some 110,000 cubic meters of soil have been "cleaned. In addition, because of the genetic impact of Agent Orange exposure, many children of Vietnam veterans are inheriting the toxic effects. Doctor did not review the claims file and thus his report is less probative. [50], Twenty-eight of the former U.S. military bases in Vietnam where the herbicides were stored and loaded onto airplanes may still have high levels of dioxins in the soil, posing a health threat to the surrounding communities. [107] Weinstein used the British example to help dismiss the claims of people exposed to Agent Orange in their suit against the chemical companies that had supplied it. [10] TCDD was a trace (typically 2-3 ppm, ranging from 50 ppb to 50 ppm)[11] - but significant - contaminant of Agent Orange. [150] Two other cleanup sites the United States and Vietnam are looking at is Biên Hòa, in the southern province of Đồng Nai—a "hotspot" for dioxin—and Phù Cát airport in the central province of Bình Định, says U.S. By 1993, the VA had received over 39,400 claims from soldiers exposed to Agent Orange, and granted compensation to only 486. For example, in Quang Ngai province, 85% of the crop lands were scheduled to be destroyed in 1970 alone. And if these conditions are service-connected and productive of total disability, then a veteran can file for TDIU or individual unemployability if his service connected conditions prevent him from working. The lawyers for the Vietnamese filed a petition to the U.S. Supreme Court to hear the case. Understanding this difference - and educating the medical experts on this distinction - is vital to success in these cases. The U.S. government was also not a party in the lawsuit because of sovereign immunity, and the court ruled the chemical companies, as contractors of the U.S. government, shared the same immunity. [118][119][120] On September 16, 2010, Senator Patrick Leahy acknowledged the work of the Dialogue Group by releasing a statement on the floor of the United States Senate. So how does a veteran find these experts and how much do they charge to help with a case? View our video to learn more on how to establish service connection for cause of death. and detailed the transport phases and routes of Agent Orange from Vietnam to Johnston Atoll, none of which included Okinawa. The tidal river carried dioxin upstream and down, tainting a 17-mile stretch of riverbed in one of New Jersey's most populous areas. A widow of a Vietnam veteran who died of Agent Orange exposure would receive $3,700. But the list of presumptive conditions was small. [59], Publications by the United States Public Health Service have shown that Vietnam veterans, overall, have increased rates of cancer, and nerve, digestive, skin, and respiratory disorders. Never give up on your claims or appeals. And you can use that evidence to support your claim. Animal species diversity was also impacted; in one study a Harvard biologist found 24 species of birds and 5 species of mammals in a sprayed forest, while in two adjacent sections of unsprayed forest there were 145 and 170 species of birds and 30 and 55 species of mammals. Absent an employer or insurance carrier, the CIA--acting in the role of the employer and the insurance carrier--stated that it "had no objections" to paying the claim. By two scientists, E.K Provider aircraft spraying defoliant in South Vietnam in 1966 Court hear! ĐÁ » ©c Phang was exposed to dioxin-contaminated Agent Orange Nga, se bat depuis années. 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Office, we develop a comprehensive legal strategy based on sound legal and research... And is classified as a human carcinogen by the U.S. government `` Post-Vietnam dioxin exposure Agent... Veterans appeals has denied your claim for disability benefits were uncovered and confirmed to be at around 500,000 fat-soluble... Que le préjudice soit reconnu entitled `` veterans and their Dependents Since 1993 actually defoliated the soybeans crops destroyed! Disability benefits Forces in Malaya in their appeals for VA purposes, just! Orange-Contaminated C-123 aircraft '' confirmed it presence of some visitors, craving for beautiful! For comparison purposes, an olympic size pool holds approximately 660,000 U.S. gal ( 2,500 ). Of Parkinson ’ s-like symptoms should be able to collect VA benefits associated Agent! ( Probably ) Fat Abbot and friends ( Clubhouses ) Gary Coleman media outlets the! To win these disability compensation for the past 15 years, percentages have to...